HOW TO INCREASE ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE WITH EXOGENOUS KETONES

November 19, 2017

HOW TO INCREASE ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE WITH EXOGENOUS KETONES

Traditional sports nutrition wisdom tells endurance athletes that loading up on carbohydrates prior to long-distance training/events is ideal for optimal performance. However, as sports nutrition research grows, we are learning that there may be more efficacious ways to fuel your endurance training goals.


Enter exogenous ketones (Ketone Supplements). The unique nutritional benefits of exogenous ketones, particularly beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) salts, are extensive, ranging from nootropic (brain enhancing) properties, enhanced glucose utilisation, physical performance improvements, and reduced inflammation. For endurance athletes, exogenous ketones present a superior nutritional supplement adjunct to pre-training carbohydrate ingestion.


If you’re not familiar with what exactly exogenous ketones are and how they work, be sure to check out our FREE Exogenous Ketone eBook that teaches you everything you’ll need to know before moving forward.

 

Why Endurance Athletes Should Use Exogenous Ketones

Before we jump into the data behind exogenous ketones and endurance training, let’s get a better grasp of what exactly exogenous ketones do in the human body.


In short, ketones are an alternative energy source for your body, specifically mitochondria - the ‘engine’ of cells. While endurance athletes typically think of carb-based sports beverages as the ideal energy source for aerobic exercise, recent studies suggest that exogenous ketones, like BHB salts, bolster the benefits of carbohydrates. In other words, combining ketones with carbohydrates results in better performance and recovery than carbohydrates alone. In fact, adding Essential Amino Acids (EAA’s) like that found in AMINO SWITCH™ may prove to be even more effective as previous studies support the combination of Carbohydrates and Amino Acids for improved recovery over either one alone.


Ketones are natural metabolite of fatty acid metabolism when carbohydrate intake is exceptionally low; naturally, endurance athletes who consume a large amount of carbohydrates produce very few ketones endogenously (within the body). This is precisely why KETO SWITCH™ is the perfect way for endurance athletes to reap the performance-enhancing benefits of exogenous ketones without having to eliminate carbs from the diet.


In short, using a BHB salt supplement like KETO SWITCH™ provides your body with an instant supply of ketones to utilise and amplify the performance-enhancing effects of carbohydrates. Hence, consuming KETO SWITCH™ will help mimic the effects of your body being in a state of nutritional ketosis very rapidly (typically within 30 minutes or less after ingestion).


Since KETO SWITCH™ essentially ‘switches on’ ketosis and provides a multitude of benefits, including enhancing aerobic capacity, boosting cognitive function, reducing inflammation, improving carbohydrate utilisation, decreasing food cravings, and increasing energy levels. On that note, let’s look at the research and science behind the many benefits of exogenous ketone use for endurance athletes.

 

Human Research Behind Exogenous Ketones as an Adjunct Supplement for Endurance Athletes

Study 1

A pioneer study conducted at the University of Oxford analysed 12 cyclists compared the effects of a non-nutritive beverage and a BHB beverage after depleting their glycogen stores through training. Each group was given glucose along with their respective beverages.


The findings of the study were that cyclists given the BHB beverage experienced more rapid refilling of muscle glycogen than the placebo group. The authors of the study suggest that this was the result of the BHB beverage enhancing insulin sensitivity. This assumption is very likely true based on other literature showing that exogenous ketone supplementation can drastically improve insulin sensitivity, resulting in better shuttling of blood glucose into cells.


Insulin is a peptide hormone manufactured by the pancreas that primarily works to lower blood sugar levels by increasing activity of glucose transport proteins (GLUTs). It is a potent anabolic (storage) hormone that induces protein synthesis throughout the whole body when dietary amino acids are available.


Being highly insulin sensitive means your cells respond efficiently to insulin’s signalling. Essentially, your body becomes more efficient at utilizing carbohydrates and you’re less likely to store them as adipose tissue (body fat). As such, supplementing with ketones and carbohydrates helps endurance athletes recover and replenish themselves rapidly.


Even for everyday gym goers and fitness enthusiasts who don’t train for endurance events, using KETO SWITCH™ for its insulin sensitizing benefits is prudent as it puts your body in a better position for partitioning nutrients/carbohydrates to energetically demanding tissues, such as skeletal muscle.


Study 2

A second study at the University of Oxford examined the effects of a pure carbohydrate beverage and a carbohydrate plus exogenous ketone beverage on cyclist’s performance. Keep in mind that the first study we discussed administered beverages after training.  


The two study groups received isocaloric drinks (meaning they had the same amount of energy). Fast-acting carbohydrates were used, including dextrose, fructose, and maltodextrin, all of which are known to replenish glycogen quickly.


The results showed that cyclists who drank the ketone plus carbohydrate beverage could cycle 411 metres further in the allotted time span than cyclists who drank a carbohydrate-only beverage. Moreover, lactate build-up in the ketone plus carbohydrate group was less than 60% as high as it was in the carbohydrate-only group.


This demonstrates that ketones not only increase energy reserves and enhance glucose uptake, but that they also significantly reduce lactate accumulation in the blood as exercise persists. This may result in greater performance and less fatigue.

 

Further Beneficial Findings

Better Oxygen Utilisation

Though not human data, animal research findings show that BHB supplementation also enhances oxygen utilisation, especially in the central nervous system (CNS). This is a crucial benefit for endurance athletes who take up enormous amounts of oxygen. Therefore, using a BHB supplement before training can significantly reduce build-up of oxygen or reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the CNS/brain. This may result in greater energy per molecule of oxygen and less oxidative stress. In fact your body will use less oxygen to create the same amount of ATP (Adenosine Tri Phosphate) from ketones compared to glucose. ATP is the energy of all of your cells including muscle cells etc.

Reduced Inflammation

Better yet, endurance athletes, especially runners, know how tough it can be to keep up with training when joint inflammation is rampant. The good news is exogenous ketones have strong anti-inflammatory properties in many bodily tissues by blocking the actions of a class of proteins known as inflammasomes.

Cognitive Enhancement

Data shows that increases in plasma ketone concentrations drives the brain to utilise ketone bodies for synthesis of phospholipids, which encourage neuronal growth and myelination (improvements in the production of a protective sheath around nerves for greater neuronal communication). Usually, glucose is the brain’s preferred substrate, despite being much less efficient. As such, using exogenous ketones can enhance cognitive function and the speed at which nerve impulses are conducted.

 

KETO SWITCH™ Benefits and Uses

We receive a ton of inquiries from endurance athletes looking to implement KETO SWITCH™ into their supplement regimen. KETO SWITCH™ is a revolutionary sports supplement containing patented exogenous ketones (as goBHB™ salts) along with key vitamins, ketogenic amino acids, cognitive enhancers and MCT.


The following section covers the science behind the remaining ingredients in KETO SWITCH™ and how they work in concert with BHB salts to enhance energy, cognition, fat loss, physical performance and other factors of your health and fitness.

 

Vana® Sana MCT

MCT oil is often a gut distressing ingredient for supplement users, particularly when taken in higher doses. In contrast, Vana® Sana MCT is a pure caprylic acid (C8) triglyceride powder that is well absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Better yet, C8 appears to have the most beneficial properties of all medium-chain triglycerides, especially for increasing energy and ketone body production.

Taurine

Taurine is a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, and has been shown to have antioxidant and cardioprotective properties in humans. Further findings suggest that taurine enhances physical and cognitive performance, especially when co-ingested with other energy-enhancing ingredients like BHB salts.

L-Leucine

This branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is arguably the most crucial of all amino acids for stimulating muscle tissue growth. A significant body of evidence shows that L-leucine acts as the metabolic switch for mTOR protein complexes, which ultimately control muscle protein synthesis (repair, growth and recovery). In turn, consuming L-leucine is imperative for protecting muscle tissue during times of calorie restriction and it is also a purely ketogenic amino acid helping to support endogenous ketone production.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR)

L-Carnitine is responsible for transporting fatty acids in your mitochondria so they can be oxidised for energy. Normally, L-carnitine isn’t very bioavailable, but the acetylated version of L-carnitine is considered ​nootropic “brain fuel” as it readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. The benefits from ALCAR are rather diverse, ranging from memory enhancement​, neuroprotection, increased acetylcholine levels​, ​antioxidant properties​, and assisting ​mitochondrial fat oxidation​. This makes ALCAR a perfect addition to the KETO SWITCH™ formula for enhancing fat burning, performance, and cognition.

Vitamin C

This water-soluble vitamin is a potent antioxidant that promotes healthy tissue repair and immune function. It helps the body absorb iron and other minerals, as well as reduce cortisol secretion - a hormone that acts to break down body tissues for energy during times of stress (such as exercising).

Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine HCl) is imperative for cognition as it is necessary for conversion of L-DOPA to dopamine, as well as conversion of glutamate to GABA, and proper metabolism of L-tryptophan. In fact, longitudinal studies suggest that deficiencies in several of the B vitamins, especially vitamin B6, accelerates brain tissue atrophy (shrinkage) and cognitive decline.,   


KETO SWITCH™ also uses highly bioavailable Vitamin B12, as methylcobalamin, which is necessary for the body to convert homocysteine to methionine; methionine is an amino acid necessary for the formation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in synthesis of catecholamines and various neurotransmitters. In this sense, vitamin B12 is integral to supporting mood and cognition as deficiencies have been shown to lead to depression, lethargy (tiredness), and elevated levels of anxiety.

 

Dosage Recommendations for Carbohydrates and Ketones Based on Body Size and Training Goals

According the University of Oxford studies that were discussed above, it appears that the amount of exogenous ketones necessary for endurance athletes is roughly 190 mg/kg bodyweight. The amount of carbohydrates should at least double the number of ketones ingested.


For example, here’s how a marathon runner weighing 60 kg would calculate their dosages before a 1-hour training session:


Exogenous ketone dose = 190 mg x 60 kg = 11,400 mg (11.4 g) of BHB salts, which is roughly one (20g) serving of KETO SWITCH™


Carbohydrate = 11.4 g x 2 = 22.8 g of fast-acting carbohydrates (e.g. dextrose, maltodextrin, etc.)


If you’re preparing for an event that will last several hours, increase the BHB salt content to 300 mg per kg of bodyweight. BHB salts help sustain blood ketone levels for upwards of 6 hours after ingestion, making them a superb fuel source for endurance events. When tactically combined with carbohydrates, performance and recovery will improve significantly.


Note: You may want to start with a much smaller dose in training prior to your event and titrate up as you get used to Ketones. They can cause lose bowels if you consume too much too soon.

 

Stacking Keto Switch: Maximising Supplement Synergy for Elite Performance

Along with utilising KETO SWITCH™ plus carbohydrates, Switch Nutrition™ recommends a few other supplements to maximise the performance-enhancing effects of exogenous ketones.

 

KETO SWITCH™ + AMINO SWITCH™

For endurance athletes looking to maintain their muscle tissue, reduce fatigue, and increase recovery, KETO SWITCH™ and AMINO SWITCH™ make the ideal tandem. AMINO SWITCH™ is formulated with the complete spectrum of nine essential amino acids (EAAs) in the precise human ratio.


This means that each dose of AMINO SWITCH™ works to effectively turn on muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and turn off muscle protein breakdown (MPB). AMINO SWITCH™ contains free-form EAAs for complete absorption and utilisation more rapidly than whole protein sources including Whey Protein Isolate (WPI).  


Amino Switch also contains a balance of electrolytes, co-factors, vitamins, L-tyrosine and Schisandra chinensis, which help amplify recovery, support hydration, improve performance and regulate cortisol production. And we would be remiss not to mention it comes in three amazingly refreshing flavours that are sure to satisfy.

 

Keto Switch™ + Thermal Switch™

This combination is unrivalled for endurance athletes looking to get leaner and have a little extra kick of energy before training. THERMAL SWITCH™ provides research-backed thermogenic ingredients, such as caffeine, hordenine, and green tea extract that increase metabolic rate and ramp up energy levels. Since KETO SWITCH™ is not a stimulant-based formula, THERMAL SWITCH™ is a perfect adjunct for those who like the ‘pep’ that caffeine provides before exercise.


Furthermore, THERMAL SWITCH™ helps reduce appetite and boost energy expenditure from training, meaning you feel less cravings and burn more body fat for fuel during long-lasting events. Doesn’t get much better than that. The flavours have been created to combine well in one mixed drink and your taste buds will be on cloud 9!

 

Keto Switch™ + ADRENAL SWITCH™

This combination is imperative for endurance athletes since adrenal switch is formulated with key adrenal support ingredients such as Ashwagandha extract, Magnesium, and L-theanine.


The adrenal glands are responsible for producing stress hormones, such as cortisol, adrenaline, and glucagon. During long training bouts, cortisol tends to increase significantly which ultimately increases breakdown of lean muscle tissue in the body. The ingredients in ADRENAL SWITCH™ can help reduce cortisol build up, and thus help maintain lean body mass and cognitive function.


Moreover, many athletes become magnesium deficient at some point. Low magnesium has a myriad of ramifications, especially weakening of muscular contractions. In fact ATP the energy currency of every cell in your body is only biologically active when attached to Magnesium. Thus, combining ADRENAL SWITCH™ with KETO SWITCH™ results in a synergy that will keep endurance athletes from burning out quickly and boost performance.

 

Take-Home Points

Contrary to decades of research suggesting that carbohydrates are the only crucial nutrient to consume prior to endurance training/events, exogenous ketones present a dynamic edge to enhance your long-distance performance.


While using KETO SWITCH™ on its own before training will help performance and recovery, it is ideal to consume it along with a modest amount of fast-acting carbohydrates unless fat loss is your goal. Remember to consume at least 190 mg of BHB salts per kg of bodyweight. For a 60-kg endurance athlete, this means at least 11.4 g of BHB salts (roughly one serving of KETO SWITCH™) prior to training.


If you want to take your performance to even greater levels, try utilising some of the additional synergistic supplement detailed in this eBook.


You train hard, and Switch Nutrition™ is dedicated to making supplements that help you perform at your best each and every day. All our products are…

  • Soy Free
  • Gluten Free
  • Lactose Free
  • No Preservatives
  • No Artificial Colours
  • 100% Open Label
  • 100% Australian Owned & Manufactured

Switch Nutrition Disclaimer: The above article is merely a guide and opinion. It is in no way a recommendation or a treatment protocol for any health conditions or diseases. You should always consult with a qualified health care provider before changing your supplement, training or nutritional strategy. Supplementation should only be attempted by pregnant or breastfeeding women, anyone on prescription medication or children under the age of 15 when advised and monitored by your qualified health care provider.

References

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2. Balasse, E. O., & Neef, M. A. (1975). Inhibition of ketogenesis by ketone bodies in fasting humans. Metabolism, 24(9), 999-1007.

3. Sakurai, Y., Aarsland, A., Herndon, D. N., Chinkes, D. L., Pierre, E., Nguyen, T. T., ... & Wolfe, R. R. (1995). Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by long-term insulin infusion in severely burned patients. Annals of surgery, 222(3), 283.

4. Cox, P. J., Kirk, T., Ashmore, T., Willerton, K., Evans, R., Smith, A., ... & King, M. T. (2016). Nutritional ketosis alters fuel preference and thereby endurance performance in athletes. Cell metabolism, 24(2), 256-268.

5. D'Agostino, D. P., Pilla, R., Held, H. E., Landon, C. S., Puchowicz, M., Brunengraber, H., ... & Dean, J. B. (2013). Therapeutic ketosis with ketone ester delays central nervous system oxygen toxicity seizures in rats. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 304(10), R829-R836.

6. Youm, Y. H., Nguyen, K. Y., Grant, R. W., Goldberg, E. L., Bodogai, M., Kim, D., ... & Kang, S. (2015). The ketone metabolite [beta]-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory disease. Nature medicine, 21(3), 263-269.

7. Yeh, Y. Y., & Sheehan, P. M. (1985, April). Preferential utilization of ketone bodies in the brain and lung of newborn rats. In Federation proceedings (Vol. 44, No. 7, pp. 2352-2358).

8. Crozier, G., Bois-Joyeux, B., Chanez, M., Girard, J., & Peret, J. (1987). Metabolic effects induced by long-term feeding of medium-chain triglycerides in the rat. Metabolism, 36(8), 807-814.

9. Wójcik, O. P., Koenig, K. L., Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A., Costa, M., & Chen, Y. (2010). The potential protective effects of taurine on coronary heart disease. Atherosclerosis, 208(1), 19-25.

10.  Seidl, R., Peyrl, A., Nicham, R., & Hauser, E. (2000). A taurine and caffeine-containing drink stimulates cognitive performance and well-being. Amino acids, 19(3-4), 635-642.

11. Stipanuk, M. H. (2007). Leucine and protein synthesis: mTOR and beyond. Nutrition reviews, 65(3), 122-129.

12. Smeland OB​1, ​Meisingset TW​, ​Borges K, ​ ​Sonnewald U​.3. Chronic acetyl-L-carnitine alters brain energy metabolism and increases noradrenaline and serotonin content in healthy mice. Neurochem Int.​ 2012 Jul; 61(1):100-7.

13. Peters, E. M., Anderson, R., Nieman, D. C., Fickl, H., & Jogessar, V. (2001). Vitamin C supplementation attenuates the increases in circulating cortisol, adrenaline and anti-inflammatory polypeptides following ultramarathon running. International journal of sports medicine, 22(07), 537-543.

14. Van Uffelen, J. G., Chinapaw, M. J., van Mechelen, W., & Hopman-Rock, M. (2008). Walking or vitamin B for cognition in older adults with mild cognitive impairment? A randomized controlled trial. British journal of sports medicine.

15. Calvaresi, E., & Bryan, J. (2001). B Vitamins, Cognition, and Aging a Review. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 56(6), P327-P339.

16. Penninx, B. W., Guralnik, J. M., Ferrucci, L., Fried, L. P., Allen, R. H., & Stabler, S. P. (2000). Vitamin B12 deficiency and depression in physically disabled older women: epidemiologic evidence from the Women’s Health and Aging Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(5), 715-721.

Disclaimer: This article is merely a guide and is in no way intended as a recommendation or a treatment protocol for any health conditions or diseases. You should always consult with a qualified health care provider before changing your supplement, training or nutritional strategy. Supplementation should not be attempted by pregnant or breastfeeding women, anyone on prescription medication or children under the age of 15 unless advised by your qualified health care provider.